|Evidence-based medicine is the "conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients" (Sackett, DL, Rosenberg WM, Gray JA, et al. BMJ. 1996 312(7023):71-2).
Note: clicking on the interactive pyramid will reveal related evidence-based medicine resources. Click here for MEDICOR's complete list of available evidence-based medicine resources.
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TRIP (Turning Research Into Practice) Database Plus
Simultaneously searches evidence-based sources of systematic reviews, practice guidelines, and critically-appraised topics and articles -- including most of those listed above and many more. Also searches MEDLINE’s Clinical Queries, medical image databases, e-textbooks, and patient information leaflets.
Filtered resources appraise the quality of studies and often make recommendations for practice.
Systematic Reviews / Meta-Analyses
Authors of a systematic review ask a specific clinical question, perform a comprehensive literature search, eliminate the poorly done studies and attempt to make practice recommendations based on the well-done studies. A meta-analysis is a systematic review that combines all the results of all the studies into a single statistical analysis of results.
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Consists of detailed, structured topic reviews of hundreds of articles. Teams of experts complete comprehensive literature reviews, evaluate the literature, and present summaries of the findings of the best studies. Published by the International Cochrane Collaboration.
What is the Cochrane Collaboration? (YouTube video)
This 7-minute Video FAQ explains the workings of the Cochrane Collaboration and the Cochrane library and how these benefit both consumers and providers.
The Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE)
Full-text database containing structured abstracts of systematic reviews from a variety of medical journals. DARE is produced by the National Health Services' Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (NHS CRD) at the University of York. DARE records cover topics such as diagnosis, prevention, rehabilitation, screening, and treatment.
BestBETS: Best Evidence Topics
BETs were developed in the Emergency Department of Manchester Royal Infirmary, UK, to provide rapid evidence-based answers to real-life clinical questions, using a systematic approach to reviewing the literature. BETs take into account the shortcomings of much current evidence, allowing physicians to make the best of what there is. Although BETs initially had an emergency medicine focus, there are a significant number of BETs covering cardiothoracics, nursing, primary care and paediatrics.
A compendium of evidence-based summaries of frequently encountered medical conditions, linked to one-page critically appraised summaries (called CATs) of every article used. It is produced by the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine, Oxford.
Systematic Reviews are also searchable in MEDLINE:
- MEDLINE: Enter your search query. Click on the “Limits” icon; select “Systematic Reviews” under “Subject Subsets.”
- PubMed: Click on “Clinical Queries” on the left side of the screen; select “Find Systematic Reviews” and enter your search query.
Authors of critically-appraised topics evaluate and synthesize multiple research studies.
National Guideline Clearinghouse
A comprehensive database of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines and related documents produced by the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality, in partnership with the American Medical Association and the American Association of Health Plans. Updated weekly.
Note: Guideline evidence varies from expert opinion to high levels of evidence.
Canadian Medical Association CPG Infobase
These guidelines are produced or endorsed in Canada by a national, provincial/territorial or regional medical or health organization, professional society, government agency or expert panel.
DUETs : Database of Uncertainties about the Effects of Treatments
There are many important uncertainties about the effects of treatments. To help ensure that treatments are likely to do more good than harm, these gaps in knowledge must be identified and those deemed sufficiently important must be addressed in research. Research on the effects of treatments too often fails to address questions that matter to patients, and to the clinicians to whom they turn for help. For this reason, the Database of Uncertainties about the Effects of Treatments (DUETs) gives priority to identifying and publishing unanswered questions about the effects of treatments which have been asked by patients and clinicians, while also noting therapeutic uncertainties identified through systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, and other formal mechanisms.
Critically-Appraised Individual Articles
Authors of critically-appraised individual articles evaluate and synopsize individual research studies.
The ACP Journal Club
The editors of this journal screen the top 100+ clinical journals and identify studies that are methodologically sound and clinically relevant. An enhanced abstract, with conclusions clearly stated, and a commentary are provided for each selected article. Published by the American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine.
Bandolier is an independent journal about evidence-based healthcare published in the UK. It includes “information about evidence of effectiveness (or lack of it), and put[s] the results forward as simple bullet points of those things that worked and those that did not: a bandolier with bullets. Information comes from systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomised trials, and from high quality observational studies.”
Quality articles from over 110 clinical journals are selected by research staff, and then rated for clinical relevance and interest by an international group of physicians. Includes a searchable database of the best evidence from the medical literature and an email alerting system. From BMJ Publishing Group and McMaster University's Health Information Research Unit.
Evidence is not always available via filtered resources. Searching the primary literature may be required. It is possible to use specific search strategies in MEDLINE and other databases to achieve the highest possible level of evidence.
ClinicalTrials.gov provides regularly updated information about federally and privately supported clinical research in human volunteers. ClinicalTrials.gov gives you information about a trial's purpose, who may participate, locations, and phone numbers for more details. The information provided on ClinicalTrials.gov should be used in conjunction with advice from health care professionals.
CenterWatch: Clinical Trials Listing Service
You can use this site to find a wealth of information about clinical research, including listings of more than 41,000 active industry and government-sponsored clinical trials, as well as new drug therapies in research and those recently approved by the FDA.
National Cancer Institute Clinical Trials
Search NCI's list of 4,000+ clinical trials now accepting participants.
To limit your PubMed search to the best evidence-producing studies: Click on "clinical queries" (on the left side of the screen). This specialized search is intended for clinicians and has built-in search "filters." Four study categories--therapy, diagnosis, etiology, prognosis--are provided, and you may indicate whether you wish your search to be more sensitive (i.e., include most relevant articles but probably including some less relevant ones) or more specific (i.e., including mostly relevant articles but probably omit a few).
To limit your MEDLINE search to the best evidence-producing studies: Clinical Queries (See also PubMed) is searchable; click on the "Limits" icon.
Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature
To limit your CINAHL search to the best evidence-producing studies: Click on the ‘Limits’ icon to use ‘Clinical Queries’ or limit to ‘Research’ or other ‘publication’ types (i.e., systematic review).
Background Information/Expert Opinion
Note: Evidence in these resources may vary from expert opinion to high levels of evidence.
A clinical information resource, which offers up-to-date, fully referenced expert answers to patient-care, diagnosis, and treatment questions. Topic reviews are written by recognized authorities who review the topic, synthesize the evidence, summarize key findings, and provide specific recommendations.
Evidence-Based Medicine Information Sites
Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (Oxford University)
The Centre promotes evidence-based health care and provide support and resources to anyone who wants to make use of them. Includes the EBM Toolbox, an assortment of materials which are very useful for practitioners of EBM, and EBM Teaching Materials, including PowerPoint presentations.
Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (Toronto)
Includes many resources for practicing and teaching EBM.
A selective list of additional EBM websites developed and maintained by Duke University Medical Center Library.
Netting the Evidence
From the School of Health and Related Research (ScHARR) at the University of Sheffield, UK. Includes a comprehensive list of EBM databases, journals, articles, and other information sources.
Users' Guides to Evidence-Based Practice
From the University of Alberta's Centre for Health Evidence. Includes the complete set of EBM Users' Guides originally published as a series in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA).
Evidence-Based Medicine Tutorials
Introduction to Evidence-Based Medicine
From Duke University Medical Center Library and University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Health Sciences Library.
SUNY Health Sciences Evidence-Based Medicine Course
Forming a Clinical Question: Tutorial (Boston University Medical Center)
From the Boston University Medical Center Library. A five minute interactive tutorial on formulating clinical questions.
Evidence-Based Medicine Resources for PDA
Evidence-Based Medicine Resources for the PDA
A list of resources from the Dartmouth Biomedical Libraries.
List of Evidence-Based Medicine Resources
Free and restricted electronic resources available through the MEDICOR portal
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Produced by Jan Glover, David Izzo, Karen Odato and Lei Wang.